As the working definition demonstrates, jurisdiction is a complex notion that is used in a variety of ways depending on the situation and context. Examples of jurisdiction in context are:
Supranational jurisdiction entails that member states of a supranational organization have decided to cede part of their sovereign competences to the organization in question.
- E.g. EU Regulation 2019/631 sets CO2 emission standards for new passenger cars and vans, meaning every member state will have to abide by its provisions and implement it directly into national law as a binding legislative act of European Union Law.
- Issues regarding implementation of or compliance with such Regulations or other EU legislation are justiciable and can be brought to the Court of Justice of European Union that will have general or exclusive competence to adjudicate on those matters.
A citizen of the Netherlands drives her car over the border to deliver stolen goods in Germany. Both the Netherlands (extraterritorially, e.g. on the basis of citizenship/nationality of the defendant) and Germany (e.g. on the basis of territory where the criminal act was committed or completed) can claim and exercise jurisdiction over the case.